2 edition of Memory page placement based on predicted cache behaviour in CC-NUMA multiprocessors. found in the catalog.
Memory page placement based on predicted cache behaviour in CC-NUMA multiprocessors.
Robert Andrew Ho
Written in English
An important characteristic of CC-NUMA multiprocessors is the relative difference in latency between local and remote memory accesses. For many applications running on these systems, the amount of time spent stalled on remote memory accesses can make up a significant fraction of the total execution time. Previous work has shown that proper placement of pages in memory can reduce much of this time by changing remote memory accesses to local memory accesses. This work has also shown that such placement decisions are most effective when they are based on the caching behaviour of those pages. In this thesis, we present a new method of predicting such caching behaviour at allocation time, and making appropriate placement decisions based on these predictions. This method required minimal additions to the memory subsystem of the University of Toronto Tornado operating system, and no special hardware for monitoring the memory hierarchy. We also show that this method can result in improvements of up to 35% in total execution time over traditional placement policies such as first-touch placement when the data sets of the applications being run exceeds the size of a local memory node. These results hold for both single application and multiprogrammed workloads.
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• One book I’m reading at this moment • Shelves = main memory • Desk = cache • Book = block • Page in book = memory location UTCS , Lecture 15 4 The Memory Hierarchy Registers Level 1 Cache 1 cyc words/cycle compiler managed File Size: KB. Abstract: The memory consistency model of a system affects performance, programmability, and portability. We aim to describe memory consistency models in a way that most computer professionals would understand. This is important if the performance-enhancing features being incorporated by system designers are to be correctly and widely used by programmers. Phil Storrs PC Hardware book Cache Memory Systems We can represent a computers memory and storage systems, hierarchy with a triangle with the processors internal registers at the top and the hard drive at the bottom. The internal registers are the fastest and most expensive memory in the system and the system memory is the least expensive. The memory holds data fetched from the main memory or updated by the CPU. The control unit decides whether a memory access by the CPU is HIT or MISS, serves the requested data, loads and stores the data to the main memory and decides where to store data in the cache memory. Another common part of the cache memory is a tag table.
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The use of CC-NUMA multiprocessors complicates the placement of physical memory pages. Memory closest to a processor provides the best access time, but optimal memory page placement is a difficult. This paper presents details of the DSM cache coherence pro- tocol extensions that allow speedup from to over normal memory systems on a range of simu- lated uniprocessor and multiprocessor.
The use of CC-NUMA multiprocessors complicates the placement of physical memory pages. Memory closest to a processor provides the best access time, but optimal memory page placement is a difficult problem with process movement, multiple processes requiring access Memory page placement based on predicted cache behaviour in CC-NUMA multiprocessors.
book the same physical memory page, and application behavior changing over execution by: In particular, we investigate the impact of page placement in nonuniform memory access time (NUMA) shared memory MIMD machines.
In this paper, the impact of memory management policies and switch design alternatives on the application performance of cache-coherent nonuniform memory access (CC-NUMA) multiprocessors is.
Multiprocessors and Cache Memory. Abstract. Increasing demand for high performance has shifted the focus of the designers from single processor to multiprocessor and parallel processing. Another important technique to increase the performance of the overall system is increasing cache : Jameel Ahmed, Mohammed Yakoob Siyal, Shaheryar Najam, Zohaib Najam.
First read, no other cache has a copy Directory-based Cache Coherence No all multiprocessors use shared bus for memory access It d t l!It does not scale.
Large multiprocessors with NUMA Many local memory accesses With the ability of bus snoop, an explicit directory about cache state can be used 2/2/ CSC / - Spring The NUMA architecture defines the node as the Processing Element, with cache lines and a part of the main memory.
Then, each node is connected to each other by the network. So, in the NUMA architecture we could say that the memory and the cache are distributed in the nodes, while in the UMA architecture is only the cache that is distributed.
wide variety of models for parallel prograrnmtng. Although appropriate for use on bus-based. shared-memory multiprocessors such as the Sequent and Encore systems. Psyche Is especially well-suited for use on large-scale NUMA multiprocessors.
Memory management plays a central role In the Psyche kernel. Protected procedure calls. Elastic Cooperative Caching: An Autonomous Dynamically Adaptive Memory Hierarchy for Chip Multiprocessors Memory page placement based on predicted cache behaviour in CC-NUMA multiprocessors.
book Herrero1 Chip multiprocessors, memory hierarchy, elas-tic cooperative caching, tiled microarchitectures. scalable, and elastic cache behavior based on application needs for next generation tiled microarchi-tectures.
Currently, parallel platforms based on large scale hierarchical shared memory multiprocessors with Non-Uniform Memory Access (NUMA) are becoming a trend in scientific Memory page placement based on predicted cache behaviour in CC-NUMA multiprocessors.
book Performance Computing (HPC). Abstract. For Non-Uniform Memory Access (NUMA) multiprocessors, memory access overhead is crucial to system performance. Processor scheduling and page placement schemes, dominant factors of memory access overhead, are closely related.
In particular, if the processor scheduling scheme is dynamic space-sharing, it should be considered together with Cited by: 2.
He received the BSEE in and MSEE inboth from the School of Electrical Engineering, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia, Yugoslavia. He is in the final phase of finishing his PhD Memory page placement based on predicted cache behaviour in CC-NUMA multiprocessors.
book on dynamic software maintenance of cache coherence in shared-memory multiprocessors. Example 1: Interleaved Direct Mapping. Each block has four 4-byte words or bytes. The CM has KB or blocks, and the MM has bytes (4GB) or blocks. There are MM blocks mapped to each CM block, i.e., each CM block needs a bit tag to identify the current MM block.
The top 16 bits of a bit address is compared with the tag of the CM block identified by the next 12 bits of the. Munin is a distributed shared memory (DSM) system that allows shared memory parallel programs to be executed efficiently on distributed memory multiprocessors.
Munin is unique among existing DSM systems in its use of multiple consistency protocols Cited by: The cache coherent nonuniform memory access (CC-NUMA) paradigm, as employed in the Sequent NUMA-Q (Lovett and Clapp, ), for example, is a relatively recent idea compared to SMP.
CC-NUMA systems strike a balance between the tightly coupled SMP systems and more loosely coupled clusters of communicating computers. The Second Edition of The Cache Memory Book introduces systems designers to the concepts behind cache design.
The book teaches the basic cache concepts and more exotic techniques. It leads readers through someof the most intricate protocols used in complex multiprocessor caches. Written in an accessible, informal style, this text demystifies cache memory design by translating cache 5/5(2).
Memory Consistency Models for Shared-Memory Multiprocessors Kourosh Gharachorloo* December Also published as Stanford University Technical Report CSL-TR *This report is the author’s Ph.D. dissertation from Stanford University. In addition to Digital Equipment’s support, the author was partly supported by DARPA contract N Abstract.
This paper analyzes a new hardware solution for the cache coherence problem in large scale shared memory multiprocessors. The protocol is based on a linked list of caches — forming a distributed directory and does not require a global broadcast mechanism.
Fully-mapped directory-based solutions proposed earlier also do not require a global broadcast by: 4. Topics Covered: How cache works. Understanding Cache blocks, offset and Index - Placement Policies: Directly mapped, Set-associative and Fully associative caches - Replacement Policy, Write.
TLB miss for Q: will require navigation of a hierarchical page table (let’s ignore this case for now and assume we have.
succeeded in finding the physical memory location (R) for page Q) Access memory location R (find this either in L1, L2, or memory) We now have the translation for P – put this into the TLB.
the CPUs, caches, and memory. For SMP and CC-NUMA  architectures, this data flow is controlled by the cache-coherence protocol, which moves the data in units of cache lines. Figure 1 shows a cache line's possible locations relative to a given CPU in a CC-NUMA system.
As shown in the figure, a CC-NUMA system is composed of modules called. Abstract. This paper describes a new hardware solution for the cache coherence problem in large scale shared memory multiprocessors. The protocol is based on a linked list of caches — forming a distributed directory and (to ensure a scalable design) does not require a global broadcast mechanism.
Fully-mapped directory-based solutions proposed earlier also do not Cited by: 7. EECC - Shaaban #6 lec # 9 Spring • Bus-based based Multiprocessors: (SMPs) – A number of processors (commonly ) in a single node share physical memory via system bus or point-to-point interconnects (e.g.
AMD64 via. HyperTransport) – Symmetric access to all of main memory from any processor. • Commonly called: Symmetric Memory Multiprocessors. The dominant architecture for the next generation of shared-memory multiprocessors is CC-NUMA (cache-coherent non-uniform memory architecture).
These machines are attractive as compute servers because they provide transparent access to local and remote memory. However, the access latency to remote memory is 3 to 5 times the latency to local by: The Second Edition includes an updated and expanded glossary of cache memory terms and buzzwords.
The book provides new real world applications of cache memory design and a new chapter on cache"tricks." Key Features* Illustrates detailed example designs of caches* Provides numerous examples in the form of block diagrams, timing waveforms, state tables, and code.
Matching memory access patterns and data placement for NUMA systems. Full Text: PDF Get this Article: Authors: Zoltan Majo: ETH Zurich: Thomas R. Gross: ETH Zurich: Published in: Proceeding: CGO '12 Proceedings of the Tenth International Symposium on Code Generation and OptimizationCited by: Be- cattse of locality in the memory access patterns of multiprocessors, the cache sat- isfies a large fraction of the processor accesses, thereby reducing both the aver- age memory latency and the communica- tion bandwidth requirements imposed on the system’ s interconnection network.
Chip Multiprocessors (CMPs) have different technological parameters and physical constraints than earlier multi-processor systems, which should be taken into consideration when designing cache coherence protocols. Also, contemporary cache coherence protocols use invalidate schemes that are known to generate a high number of coherence Cited by: 1.
Introduction To Computer Architecture Unit Shared-Memory Multiprocessors CIS (Martin/Roth): Shared Memory Multiprocessors 2 ¥Bus-based UMAs common: symmetric multi-processors (SMP) Shared Memory Multiprocessors 16 Cache Incoherence ¥Scenario II: processors have write-back caches ¥Potentially 3 copies of accts.bal: memory.
A Survey of Cache Coherence Mechanisms in Shared Memory Multiprocessors Ramon Lawrence Department of Computer Science University of Manitoba [email protected] Abstract This paper is a survey of cache coherence mechanisms in shared memory multiprocessors.
Cache. Non-uniform memory access (NUMA) is a computer memory design used in multiprocessing, where the memory access time depends on the memory location relative to the NUMA, a processor can access its own local memory faster than non-local memory (memory local to another processor or memory shared between processors).
The benefits of NUMA are. Cache-only memory architecture. Cache only memory architecture (COMA) is a computer memory organization for use in multiprocessors in which the local memories (typically DRAM) at each node are used as cache.
This is in contrast to using the local memories as actual main memory, as in NUMA organizations. CPU-cache or memory node) the data is located. For this reason, the placement of threads and memory plays a crucial role in performance. This property inspired many NUMA-aware algorithms for operating systems.
Their insight is to place threads close to their mem-ory [19, 12, 9], spread the memory pages across the sys. DASH is a scalable shared-memory multiprocessor currently being developed at Stanford's Computer Systems Laboratory.
The architecture consists of powerful processing nodes, each with a portion of the shared-memory, connected to a scalable interconnection network. A key feature of DASH is its distributed directory-based cache coherence by: memory) and data is replicated to local memory as well as the cache on a miss.
Examples of such machines include the commercially available KSR-1  and the Swedish Data Diffusion Machine (DDM) . COMA multiprocessors have a significant advantage over CC-NUMA multiprocessors when it comes to servicing capacity and conflict cache misses. Memory Hierarchy and Cache Misses Today’s computer systems use fast cache memory to fill the speed gap between CPU and main memory.
For example, on the SUN Enterprise with MHz UltraSparc II CPU and EDO DRAM, L2 cache hit takes about 8 processor clocks, while L2 cache miss takes about processor clocks [Sun97]. The veriﬁcation of cache coherence under a relaxed memory model is much more com- plex.
First of all, the sequence of memory accesses driving the system cannot just be any arbitrary sequence of loads and stores. Consider the execution of ﬁgure 1 in a system with a relaxed mem- ory model [1, 2, 9, 14]. Purchase Cache Memory Book, The - 2nd Edition.
Print Book & E-Book. ISBNA Cache Memory System based on a Dynamic/Adaptive Replacement Approach free download Abstract In this work we propose a cache memory system based on an adaptive cache replacement scheme, as part of the virtual memory system of an operating system.
We use a sequential discrete-event simulator of a distributed system to compare our approach with. The book pdf the basic cache concepts and more exotic techniques.
It leads readers through someof the most intricate protocols used in complex multiprocessor caches. Written in an accessible, informal style, this text demystifies cache memory design by translating cache concepts and jargon into practical methodologies and real-life examples /5(3).Cache Conscious Algorithms for Relational Query Processing* However, in general, cache behavior is fairly complex and one needs to use some cache profiling tool like cprof [LW94] as an aid to study the cache behavior of and cache/memory optimizations.
The rest of the paper is organized as follows. Sec.Simulation as a tool for optimizing memory accesses on NUMA machines.
Experimental results ebook that a proper technique can significantly change the runtime cache behavior and memory access behavior, and hence result in a high-performance gain. Design and Analysis of Static Memory Management Policies for CC-NUMA Multiprocessors Cited by: 1.